Komposisi Penduduk Usia Kerja

Artikel ini menyajikan potret ketenagakerjaan di Indonesia secara menyeluruh dengan fokus pada komposisi penduduk usia kerja. Potretnya bersifat menyeluruh dalam arti menggambarkan rata-rata nasional secara keseluruhan.

Yang dipotret bukan keadaan satu titik waktu tetapi keadaan lintas-waktu selama 13 tahun, periode 1997-2009, berarti mencakup era semua Presiden RI kecuali yang pertama dan yang sekarang.

[Lanjut]

 

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Pekerja Anak di Pertambangan Timah

Pekerja tambang mengandung risiko terpapar masalah kesehatan, keamanan, bahkan keselamatan jiwa. Risiko itu tentu lebih besar bagi pekerja anak. Pertanyaannya, berapa banyak pekerja anak di sektor pertambangan?

Suatu survei yang diprakarsai ILO mencoba menjawab pertanyaan ini. Fokusnya adalah pekerja anak di pertambangan timah di Bangka Belitung. Metodologi dan hasil survei dapat diakses di SINI.

Understanding Rumi: A Concise Introduction

Rumi was a messenger of truth with high clarity of vision. And the only way we can truly honor him is to be as truthful and clear about his life as possible[1].

The above quote describes briefly the legacy of Rumi as a messenger of truth, at least from Shiva’s perspective. That quote also provides a practical guideline on how to honor the Rumi’s legacy correctly, again from Shiva’s view. But who is Rumi and why he has been so popular? This short aims at answering such a question concisely.

A Figure with Multiple Expertise

Rumi was a 13th-century Persian (30/9/177–17 /12 /1273). His full name is Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Muhammad. He is also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, or Mevlânâ / Mawlānā (“our master”), Mevlevî / Mawlawī (“my master”). The label of master reflects his widely recognized expertise especially in the area of the Islamic Law. Like his father and grandfather, Rumi once worked as a mufti or fatwa giver in the field of Islamic Law.

At the age of 30, since meeting the mysterious Syam, Rumi abandoned his profession as a mufti. The nature of the relationship between the two is largely still a mystery. Syam had been widely recognized playing a crucial role in transforming Rumi to the perhaps most productive and popular poet with Sufistic genre.

In addition to mufti and poet, Rumi is also popular as an Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi; not the average class but expert level. In short, Rumi was a figure with multiple expertise. Just to note, the term “Rumi” means “Romans”. This designation is inherent because Rumi lived in an area that was previously part of Eastern Roman or Byzantine rule.

Rumi Popularity

Since his young ages, Rumi had been popular. The influence of his thoughts went far beyond national and tribal boundaries including Iran, Tajikistan, Greece, Pashtun, Central Asia, South Asia.

Rumi popularity remained unchanged until now, at least as a poet. His poems have been translated into many languages and transformed into various formats. Some observers portray Rumi as the most popular and the best selling poet in the United States[2].

Rumi popularity in the present day is associated with the successful efforts of Barks, a US linguist. One day (1976) it was said that he was presented with AJ Abbery’s translation of Rumi’s work. His comment at that time, “These poems need to be released from his cage”.

Since then Barks has spent 33 years translating Rumi’s work with freestyle, a style that is judged to suit contemporary tastes. As a result, 22 volumes of Rumi’s free-style translations had been available, including The Essential Rumi, A Year with Rumi, Rumi: The Big Red Book and Rumi’s father’s spiritual diary, The Drowned Book, are all published by HarperOne. His work has been sold out of two billion copies and translated in 23 languages.

The Power of Rumi Poetry

What made Rumi’s poetry widely accepted? Many theories about this. Barks summarizes the following[3]:

“Like the Sayings of Jesus (The Gospel of Thomas), they have been hidden away for centuries,” Barks notes, “not in a red urn buried in Egypt, but in the dervish communities and libraries of Turkey and Iran. Over recent years scholars have begun to organise them and translate them into English.”

“Just now,” Barks says, “I feel there is a strong global movement, an impulse that wants to dissolve the boundaries that religions have put up and end the sectarian violence.  It is said that people of all religions came to Rumi’s funeral in 1273. Because, they said, he deepens our faith wherever we are.  This is a powerful element in his appeal now.”

In this context, Barks is not the only one. Anne Walden, a poet who is also a professor of poetry, one day saw a line of Rumi’s poems: “Out beyond the ideas of wrongdoing and right doing there is a field. I’ll meet you there. “(Out of bounds there really is a field. It’s where we meet.”) For Anne, this poem is extraordinarily provocative and inspiring at once. He concluded that Rumi’s poetry was mysterious, provocative and prominent in our era when we were struggling to understand the Sufi tradition and the nature of ecstasy, devotion, and strength of a poem.

“Across time, place and culture, Rumi’s poems articulate what it feels like to be alive,” says Lee Briccetti, executive director of Poets House, co-sponsor of a national library series in the US that features Rumi. (It’s currently in Detroit and Queens and heads to San Francisco, Houston, Atlanta, and Columbus in 2015.)  “And they help us understand our own search for love and the ecstatic in the coil of daily life.” She compares Rumi’s work to Shakespeare’s for its “resonance and beauty”[4].

In short, in the contemporary era, there are many “fans” of Rumi in various parts of the world. But what made Rumi’s poetry widely accepted? Many theories about this. Barks summarizes the following[5]:

“Like the Sayings of Jesus (the Gospel of Thomas), they (meaning the works of Rumi) have been hidden for centuries … not in the red urns buried in Egypt, but in the dervish communities and libraries of Turkey and Iran. scholars have begun to organize them and translate them into English. “

In this context, Barks is not the only one. Anne Walden, a poet who is also a professor of poetry, one day saw a line of Rumi’s poems: “Out beyond the ideas of wrongdoing and right doing there is a field. I’ll meet you there. For Anne, this poem is extraordinarily provocative and inspiring. Ultimately she came to the conclusion that Rumi’s poetry was mysterious, provocative and prominent in our era when we were struggling to understand the Sufi tradition and the nature of ecstasy, devotion, and strength of a poem.

“All the time, in all places and across cultures, Rumi poems articulate how it feels to live”. That’s said Lee Bricceti, executive director of the Poets House. Rumi’s poetry, according to him, “helps us understand our search for love and ecstasy in the struggle of everyday life”. The director compares Rumi’s work with Shakespeare’s work in terms of resonance and beauty[6].

Esoteric VS Exoteric Approaches

Rumi’s works are filled with esoteric nuances that emphasizing more on the internal or essential aspect of religious teaching. This approach can be said driven more by the fascination of His Beauty or the aspect of His Jamal. Analytically, this approach can be distinguished from an exoteric approach that emphasizes the outward or formal side of religious teaching, and driven more by the Divine Beauty of SWT, His Jalal. Unfortunately, both of these approaches are often sharply opposed. The martyr cases of Al-Hallaj (858-922M) or Siti Jenar (for the Indonesian case) can be viewed representing such a conflict.

A brief note on Siti Jenar might be worth inserted here. Syech Siti Jenar was widely recognized as one of the spreaders of Islam on Java. He developed the teachings of the Sufi way of life which were considered contrary to be the teachings of the nine spreaders of Islam on Java called Walisongo. There are much conflicting information on the origin and the cause of his death.

It is worth noting that most of the prominent exoteric ulama (scholar) can accept Rumi’s work. These ulama had been reportedly “smile” when reading Rumi’s “jokes” as they recognize there are deep “wisdom” in them. This fact is interesting to note because Rumi’s works at first glance are dangerous if seen in the general perspective of exoterics. The following Rumi’s work illustrates the danger in question:

Not Christian or Jewish or Muslim, not Hindu, Buddhist, Sufi, or Zen. There is no religious or cultural system. I am not from East or West, not out of the ground, not natural, not composed of elements at all. I am not, I am not from Adam or Eve or any story of origin. My place is without a base, an trace that is not tracked. Either body or soul. I belong to my beloved, have two worlds as one and one call to know, first, last, outside, inside, only breath that man.

Rumi’s “secret” might be because he, like Busthami, was known to be very obedient in practicing religious teachings so that avoiding criticism from exoteric ulama. As mentioned, esoteric and exoteric differences are only useful at the level of analysis. On a practical level, it can be combined as shown by the greatest Sufis. This combination is ideal because God Almighty is One and His Divinity encompasses both Jalal (the Greatness) and Jamal (the Beauty).

Heart and Love

To  Rumi, the heart (qalb) is the source of essential knowledge and love. This is one of the main themes of his work. He strongly recommends that we regularly visit each other’s hearts regularly. This theme which is tried to be reflected in Imaginary Dialogue with Rumi.

Another main theme of his work is love, Sufistic love. For him, love is the only dependable way to approach Him. Both of these themes – heart and love – by Rumi narrated through his work in a spontaneous and humorous style so that they can be accepted by the audience with a smile… @

[1] Sharam Shiva, Rumi’s Untold Story: From 30-Year Research, http://www.rumi.net/about_rumi_main.htm.

[2] http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140414-americas-best-selling-poet.

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] https://www.azquotes.com/author/12768-Rumi/tag/religion

[6] ibid

[7] https://www.azquotes.com/author/12768-Rumi/tag/religion

Mengenal Rumi

Rumi was a messenger of truth with high clarity of vision. And the only way we can truly honor him is to be as truthful and clear about his life as possible[1].

Kutipan di atas menggambarkan sosok Rumi sebagai utusan atau pembawa pesan kebenaran, paling tidak dalam perspektif Shiva. Tapi siapa Rumi? Tulisan ini bermaksud menjawab pertanyaan ini secara singkat.

Sosok dengan Banyak Keahlian

Rumi adalah seorang Persia abad ke-13 (30/9/1207–17/12/1273). Nama lengkapnya, Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī. Ia  dikenal juga sebagai Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, atau Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (“master kita”), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (“masterku”). Gelar master mencerminkan kepakarannya, khususnya di bidang Hukum Islam. Seperti bapak dan kekeknya, Rumi pernah berprofesi sebagai mufti atau pemberi fatwa dalam bidang Hukum Islam.

Pada umur 30-an, sejak bertemu tokoh misterius Syam, Rumi menanggalkan profesinya sebagai mufti. Tokoh ini yang mengubah orientasi hidup Rumi secara radikal, paling tidak dari tampilan luar. Tokoh ini pula yang mentransformasikan Rumi menjadi penyair Sufi yang mungkin paling produktif dan populer.

Selain sebagai mufti dan penyair Rumi juga populer sebagai sarjana Islam, ahli teologi, dan Sufi mistis[2]; bukan kelas kebanyakan, tetapi tingkat ahli. Singkatnya, Rumi adalah sosok dengan banyak keahlian.

Sebagai catatan, sebutan “Rumi” berarti “orang Roma”. Sebutan ini melekat karena Rumi tinggal di wilayah yang sebelumnya merupakan bagian dari kekuasaan Romawi Timur atau Bizantium.

Popularitas Rumi

Sejak muda Rumi sudah populer. Pengaruh pemikirannya melampaui batas-batas negara dan suku termasuk  Iran, Tajikistan, Yunani, Pashtun, Asia Tengah, Asia Selatan.

Sampai kini Rumi tetap populer, paling tidak sebagai penyair. Puisi-puisinya telah diterjemahkan ke dalam banyak bahasa di dunia dan ditransformasikan ke dalam berbagai format. Beberapa pengamat mencitrakan Rumi sebagai penyair paling populer yang karyanya paling di Amerika Serikat (AS)[3].

Popularitas Rumi pada masa kini terbentuk antara lain karena keberhasilan upaya gigih Barks, seorang ahli bahasa berkebangsaan AS. Pada suatu hari (1976) konon ia disodori terjemahan AJ Abbery mengenai karya Rumi. Komentarnya ketika itu, “Puisi-puisi ini perlu dilepaskan dari kerangkengnya”.

Sejak itu Barks menghabiskan waktu 33 tahun untuk menerjemahkan karya Rumi dengan gaya bebas, gaya yang dinilainya sesuai dengan selera kontemporer. Hasilnya, 22 jilid terjemahan karya Rumi dengan gaya-bebas, termasuk The Essential Rumi, A Year with Rumi, Rumi: The Big Red Book and Rumi’s father’s spiritual diary, The Drowned Book, semuanya dipublikasikan oleh HarperOne. Karyanya telah terjual dari dua milyar kopi dan diterjemahkan dalam 23 bahasa.

Kekuatan Puisi Rumi

Apa yang membuat puisi Rumi dapat diterima secara luas? Banyak teori mengenai ini. Barks menyarikannya sebagai berikut[4]:

“Seperti Perkataan Yesus (Injil Thomas), mereka (maksudnya karya-karya Rumi) telah disembunyikan selama berabad-abad… tidak dalam guci merah yang dimakamkan di Mesir, tetapi dalam komunitas darwis dan perpustakaan Turki dan Iran. Selama beberapa tahun terakhir para sarjana telah mulai mengorganisasikan mereka dan menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa Inggris”.

“Baru-baru ini,” lanjut Barks “saya merasakan adanya gerakan global yang kuat, sebuah dorongan yang ingin membubarkan batas-batas yang telah dibuat oleh agama dan mengakhiri kekerasan sektarian. Dikatakan bahwa orang-orang dari semua agama datang ke pemakaman Rumi pada tahun 1273. Karena, kata mereka, ia memperdalam iman kita siapa pun kita…”.

Dalam koteks ini Barks bukan satu-satunya. Anne Walden, seorang penyair yang juga profesor puisi, pada suatu hari melihat satu baris pusi Rumi ini: “Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and right doing there is a field. I’ll meet you there.” (Di luar batas benar salah ada ladang. Di sanalah kita bertemu”.) Bagi Anne puisi ini luar biasa provokatif sekaligus mengilhami. Dia menyimpulkan bahwa puisi Rumi itu misterius, provokatif dan tokoh dalam era kita, ketika kita tengah bergulat untuk memahami tradisi Sufi dan sifat ekstasi, pengabdian dan kekuatan suatu puisi.

“Sepanjang waktu, di semua tempat dan lintas budaya, puisi-puisi RumI mengartikulasikan bagaimana rasanya hidup”. Itu kata Lee Bricceti, direktur eksekutif Poets House. Puisi Rumi, menurutnya, “membantu kita memahami pencarian kita akan cinta dan ekstasi dalam pergulatan hidup sehari-hari”. Sang direktur ini membandingkan karya Rumi dengan karya Shakespeare dalam hal resonansi dan keindahan.

Singkatnya, dalam era kontemporer banyak “penggemar” Rumi di berbagai belahan bumi ini.

Menyerempet Bahaya

Kita dapat merasakan karya-karya Rumi sarat dengan sifat esoterik dalam arti lebih menekankan sisi batiniah, esensi atau isi bagian dalam suatu ajaran agama. Pendekatan esoterik ini dapat dikatakan lebih terpesona (dalam beberapa kasu bahkan “tersihir”) oleh Keindahan Ilahi SWT, sifat jamal-Nya.

Secara analitis, pendekatan esoterik berbeda dengan pendekatan eksoterik yang lebih mengedepankan sisi lahiriah, formal atau tampilan luar. Pendekatan yang kedua ini lebih terkagum-kagum  oleh Keagungan Ilahi SWT, sifat Jalal-Nya. Sayangnya, kedua pendekatan ini sering kali dipertentangkan secara tajam. Kasus martir Al-Hallaj (858-922M) atau Syech Siti Jenar (untuk kasus Indonesia) dapat dipahami dalam konteks ini.

Kehebatan Rumi adalah bahwa karya-karyanya dapat diterima oleh para tokoh-tokoh (besar) penganut pendekatan eksoterik. Mereka sering kali “tersenyum” melihat “kejenakaan” Rumi karena melihat kandungan “wisdom” mendalam di dalamnya.

Fakta ini menarik disimak karena karya-karya Rumi secara sepintas lalu terkesan “menyerempet bahaya” dalam perspektif umum para eksoterik. Lihat saja puisinya ini:

Not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not Hindu, Buddhist, sufi, or zen. Not any religion or cultural system. I am not from the East or the West, not out of the ocean or up from the ground, not natural or ethereal, not composed of elements at all. I do not exist, am not an entity in this world or the next, did not descend from Adam or Eve or any origin story. My place is placeless, a trace of the traceless. Neither body or soul. I belong to the beloved, have seen the two worlds as one and that one call to and know, first, last, outer, inner, only that breath breathing human being[5].

“Rahasia” Rumi mungkin karena ia, seperti Busthami[6], dikenal sangat taat dalam memraktikkan ajaran agama sehingga tidak membuat gusar kaum eksoterik.

Seperti disinggung, perbedaan esoterik dan eksoterik hanya berguna pada tingkat analisis. Pada tingkat praktis, keduanya dapat dipadukan seperti yang diteladankan oleh kebanyakan sufi besar. Dan ini yang ideal. Bukankah yang Ilahi SWT menyandang sifat Jalal sekaligus Jamal?

Hati, Cinta dan Kejenakaan

Bagi Rumi hati (qalb) adalah sumber pengetahuan hakiki dan cinta. Inilah salah satu tema utama karyanya. Ia sangat menganjurkan kita untuk secara berkala mengunjungi hati masing-masing secara berkala. Tema ini yang dicoba direfleksikan dalam Dialog Imajiner dengan Rumi.

Tema utama lain karyanya adalah cinta, cinta sufistik. Baginya hanya cinta yang dapat diandalkan untuk mendekati-Nya. Kedua tema ini—hati dan cinta—oleh Rumi dinarasikan melalui karyanya dengan gaya spontan dan jenaka sehingga dapat diterima khalayak sambil tersenyum….@

[1] Shram Shiva, Sharam Shiva, Rumi’s Untold Story: From 30-Year Research,  http://www.rumi.net/about_rumi_main.htm

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumi.

[3] http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140414-americas-best-selling-poet.

[4] Ibid.

[5] https://www.azquotes.com/author/12768-Rumi/tag/religion

[6] https://mistikus-sufi.blogspot.com/2011/04/bayazid-al-bistami.html

 

Imaginary Dialogue with Rumi (2)

 

Dialog 2: Dust

 

[Looking out the window without expression Rumi mumble slowly …]

Rumi: Do Antum[1] recognize various paths out there?

Disciple: Just a little, Master.

Rumi: Use your heart’s eyes! Antum can see a lot of paths out there. There are big ones, some small ones. Some are straight, some are twisting. Some are safe, many are vulnerable. There are even many sham paths out there.

[The disciple just kept quiet but prepared his heart to receive the teachings from his master. He knows that his master likes to use “bird language”[2] which can only be understood by heart ears.]

Rumi: Do you know, the biggest, the straightest forward and the safest road is the Path of Al-Mustafa[3].

[Because the disciple is just silent then Rumi continues.]

Rumi: Antum knows my degree?

Disciple: Not very clear, Master.

Rumi: I am just dust on the Al-Mustafa path. But I was lucky as blessed with a little fragrance. Only slightly. Can you smell it?

Disciple: Very, Master.

Rumi: Antum knows who loves Al-Mustafa the most?

Disciple: Uncertain, master.

Rumi: Bilal. After being left by her lover, she was no longer willing to call people for prayer. When the caliph persuaded him he dodged: “Let me become a Muezzin for the Apostle only,” he said. There was no way to force him. Because, if forced, he will only be able to arrive at this part: “waasyhadu anna Muhammadan ar-Rasulullah“.

[Hearing this the disciple was just stunned, trying to imagine the situation. Seeing the students stay silent, Rumi continued].

Rumi: Antum knows what is most loved and loved by Al-Mustafa?

Disciple: Just a little but uncertain, Master.

Rumi: Mustadhafin[4], and orphans.

Disciple: But …

[The disciple failed to continue his protest because he saw the Master sink into contemplation.]

[1] Antum is a familiar phrase for “you”.

[2] The term bird language (Arabic: mantiq al-thair) is used by holy texts to convey higher truths. The sacred text alludes to Solomon as a prophet who understands this language.

[3] Al-Mustafa (Arabic) means chosen (the chosen one). Rumi used to use this term to refer to the Prophet SAW.

[4] This term refers to marginalized groups in society, including the needy and the poor.

[back to dialog 1]

Dialogue Imaginaire avec Rumi (2)

 

Dialogue 2: La poussière

 

[Regardant par la fenêtre sans expression, Rumi murmure lentement …]

Rumi : Antum reconnaît-il différents chemins?

Un disciple : Juste un peu, Maître.

Rumi : Utilisez les yeux de votre coeur! Antum peut voir beaucoup de chemins là-bas. Il y en a de grands, certains petits. Certaines sont droites, d’autres sont tordues. Certains sont en sécurité, beaucoup sont vulnérables. Il y a même beaucoup de faux chemins là-bas.

[Le disciple se taisait mais préparait son cœur à recevoir les enseignements de son maître. Il sait que son maître aime utiliser un “langage d’oiseau” qui ne peut être compris que par des oreilles de coeur.]

Rumi : Savez-vous que le chemin le plus droit, le plus droit et le plus sûr est le Chemin d’Al-Mustafa.

[Parce que le disciple est juste silencieux alors Rumi continue.]

Rumi: Antum sait mon diplôme?

Un disciple: Pas très clair, Maître.

Rumi: Je ne suis que poussière sur le sentier Al-Mustafa. Mais j’ai eu la chance d’avoir un peu de parfum. Seulement un peu. Pouvez-vous le sentir?

Disciple : Très, Maître.

Rumi : Antum sait qui aime le plus Mustafa?

Disciple : Incertain, maître.

Rumi : Bilal. Après avoir été laissée par son amant, elle ne souhaitait plus appeler les gens pour la prière. Quand le calife l’a convaincu, il a esquivé: “Laissez-moi devenir un muezzin pour l’apôtre uniquement”, a-t-il déclaré. Il n’y avait aucun moyen de le forcer. Parce que, s’il est forcé, il ne pourra arriver qu’à cette partie: “waasyhadu anna Muhammadan ar-Rasuilullah”.

[En entendant cela, le disciple était stupéfait, essayant d’imaginer la situation. Voyant les étudiants rester silencieux, continua Rumi].

Rumi: Antum sait ce qui est le plus aimé et aimé par Al-Mustafa?

Un disciple : Juste un peu mais incertain, Maître.

Rumi: Mustadhafin et les orphelins.

Disciple : Mais ….

[Le disciple a omis de continuer sa protestation parce qu’il a vu le Maître sombrer dans la contemplation].

[retour au dialogue 1]